INFORMATION & RESOURCES

Resources
Traumatic 
Brain
Injury

A brain injury resulting from significant trauma to the head due to a car accident or serious fall can lead to difficulties with communication and/or cognitive communication.  Some of these difficulties may be seen in the areas of:

  • Listening

  • Speaking

  • Reading

  • Writing

  • Word finding

  • Social Communication

  • Attention

  • Memory

  • Problem solving

  • Executive functions (planning, reasoning, abstract thinking)

 

Speech-Language Pathologists can develop functional treatment plans and goals for any of the above areas of impairments to help the client return to work and/or school and to communicate effectively in everyday situations.   

Voice 

Disorders

 

Voice disorders can occur at any age and can be caused by a variety of different reasons, such as:

  • Talking too much

  • Screaming

  • Smoking

  • Medical conditions

  • Surgery

 

If not treated properly, voice disorders can lead to further complications such as nodules, polyps, and/or other infections on the vocal cords.  If you experience any changes in your voice, such as pitch changes, sore throat or tension in the neck muscles, increased effort when speaking, be sure to speak to a medical provider. 

 

Speech-Language Pathologist can help improve the quality of a client's voice through a comprehensive voice treatment plan that includes lifestyle goals, vocal exercises, and relaxation techniques.  

 

Aphasia

 

Aphasia is a term used to describe a receptive or expressive language impairment following a stroke or other brain damage.  It is characterized by an impairment of language in either or all of the following areas: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. 

 

A person with aphasia may experience:

  • Difficulty searching for the 'right word'

  • Difficulty recognizing familiar faces or remembering names of people

  • Difficulty formulating and organizing sentences 

  • Difficulty understanding what others are saying

  • Difficulty understanding jokes or figurative speech

  • Difficulty understanding written material

  • Difficulty writing down thoughts or ideas

 

A few individuals who have suffered from a stroke or brain damage may experience some spontaneous recovery; however, most will require further rehabilitation services and therapy for aphasia is most successful when started immediately following the incident.   

 

Speech-Language Pathologists work to assess an individual's abilities and areas of need to create functional goal plans that target specific areas of impairment.   They are also able to aid an individual in accessing or using communication devices to compensate for areas of difficulty. 

Speech Services Niagara

www.speechservicesniagara.ca

 

Niagara Childrens Centre

www.niagarachildrenscentre.com

 

College of Audiologists and Speech-Language Pathologists of Ontario

www.caslpo.com

 

The Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists

www.caslpa.ca

 

Ontario Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists

www.osla.on.ca

 

The Hanen Centre

www.hanen.org

 

International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication

www.isaac-online.org

 

Brain Injury Community Re-Entry (Niagara) Inc.

www.bicr.org

 

Ontario Brain Injury Association

www.obia.on.ca

 

Brain Injury Association of Niagara

www.bianiagara.org

 

American Speech and Hearing Association

www.asha.org

 

Assistive Devices Program of Ontario

http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/public/program/adp/adp_mn.html

 

Autism Ontario

www.autismontario.com

 

Parent Direct Niagara

www.parentdirectniagara.ca

 

Cerebral Palsy Guide

www.cerebralpalsyguide.com

Speech

Sound 
Delays

Every sound has a specific age range in which a child should make the sound correctly.  As children grow and develop, errors in how they produce words will be heard; however, if the errors continue past a certain age it is considered a speech sound delay.  A child can be difficult to understand due to:

  • Speech sound substitution (e.g., 'tup' for 'cup')

  • Speech sound omissions (e.g., 'cu' for 'cup')

  • Oral motor impairments

 

Speech-Language Pathologists are able to assess a child's speech sound production and developmental errors.  They work with with the child and their  family/day care/teacher to target the child's errors and offer home programming for increased carry over of skills.  

Receptive

Language

Delays

Language delays are separate from speech sound delays and can present as either a receptive language delay, expressive language delay, or both.  Receptive language delays refer to difficulties understanding what is being said.  A child may present with the following:

  • Difficulty answering questions

  • Difficulty following directions

  • Difficulty understanding complex sentences

  • Difficulty with recalling information

 

Speech-Language Pathologists are able to work with the child and family to assess receptive language abilities and create goals to help the child better function in his/her everyday environment. 

Expressive
Language 
Delays

Language delays are separate from speech sound delays and can present as either a receptive language delay, expressive language delay, or both.  Expressive language delays refer to difficulties with sentence production or correct use of grammatical structures.  A child may present with the following:

  • Omission or incorrect use of grammatical structures

  • Difficulty formulating and/or organizing sentences

  • Speaking to communication partners in short sentences

  • Difficulty with descriptive or story-telling tasks

 

Speech-Language Pathologists are able to work with the child and family to assess expressive language abilities and create goals to help the child better function in his/her everyday environment. 

 

Literacy Delays

Emergent literacy skills are fundamental to a child's ability to learn read and write. Children may present with:

  • Difficulty with letter sounds 

  • Difficulty with blending sounds to form words

  • Difficulty reading sight words

  • Difficulty with recalling words and correct spelling​

  • Difficulty with comprehending material that was read

Speech-Language Pathologists work with the child and parents to develop a reading program that allows the child to progress naturally through the phases of reading.  Through learning strategies and skills for reading and reading comprehension, children are able to be more successful academically.